情緒動詞、其ing和ed結尾的用法分別與介系詞

人會因為一件事、一個物件或他人言行等等的刺激,而產生各種情緒,在英文中,有一類動詞,讓說話者可以表達主詞讓受詞產生某種情緒,這些動詞就叫做情緒動詞。在英文中有許多這一類的情緒動詞,情緒動詞加上ing與ed結尾(也就是現在分詞與過去分詞)就成為情緒形容詞,大部分的人比較熟悉情緒形容詞,因為文法考試經常考學生什麼情況要用ing結尾還是ed結尾,但是,許多學生卻常被文法考試清奇的各種考法搞的觀念反而更混淆不清。很多人分不清何時使用ing或ed。這篇文章會列出常用的情緒動詞與例句,解釋由他們而生的情緒形容詞的用法與其連用介系詞。

情緒動詞與情緒形容詞的用法與例句

我們常會說,『這個結果讓我感到失望』、『他的表現讓那個教授印象深刻』、『這太讓我驚訝了』等等,這些用英文來表達就要用到情緒動詞。句型為:主詞(刺激物)+情緒動詞+受詞(被刺激的人,有時可以是動物)

以interest為例:His idea interests me.  

在英文的句子結構概念,主詞是做動作者,如果要表達動作正在發生,則動詞結構要用be動詞+Ving. 而Ving可以轉詞類成為形容詞,用來描述主詞的特色。在我們的例句中,主詞為his idea,所以情緒動詞加上ing來描述his idea特色:His idea is interesting.  因此,Ving用來描述引發人情緒的刺激物。

反之,如果我們要強調受詞,我們就將受詞移動到主詞的位置,這時,動詞就要用被動態的結構 – be動詞+Vpp(幾乎所有的情緒動詞的過去分詞都是ed結尾),以便讓讀者或聽者了解主詞並非做動作者。而英文的過去分詞(Vpp)也可以轉詞類成為形容詞,所以上面例句中,受詞『我』移動到主詞的位置,將動詞結構改為被動態:I am interested.  因為人或動物不會沒事自己產生喜怒哀樂等情緒,他們的情緒都是被某個人、事、物所引發的,因此,只要是描述人或動物的情緒,就要用被動態,也就是ed結尾。

國中常見情緒動詞與例句

國中常見的情緒動詞為

bore 讓…感到無聊
surprise 讓…感到驚訝
tire 讓…感到疲倦
interest 讓…感興趣
excite 讓..感到興奮
shock 讓…驚嚇
touch 讓…觸動
worry 讓…擔憂
scare 讓…害怕
impress 讓…印象深刻
amaze 讓…驚訝
please 讓…

為了方便讀者了解情緒形容詞ing與ed結尾的差別,我們先用情緒動詞造例句,並將之改成加上ing或ed的情緒形容詞表達法。以下,我們將每個情緒動詞的三種句型,都舉出例句,以方便學習者理解。要請注意 – 當使用主動態,表達主詞令人…時,介系詞都用to,而當使用被動態表達人有…的情緒時,介系詞會因動詞不同而有變化。

  1. Books about animals interest my son.
    – Books about animals are interesting to my son.
    – My son is interested in books about animals.
  2. Her performance surprised the audience.
    – Her performance was surprising to the audience.  
    – The audience was surprised at her performance.
    注意,這裡是過去式,所以be動詞用was
  3. The graduation trip excited John so much that he couldn’t fall asleep until 2 a.m.
    – The graduation trip was so exciting that John couldn’t fall asleep until 2 a.m.
    – John was so excited about the graduation trip that he couldn’t fall asleep until 2 a.m.
    在這個例句中,我們使用了『so 形容詞(或副詞)that 子句』這個句型,進一步了解這個句型,請點擊鏈結
  4. That car accident shocked my son deeply.
    – That car accident was very shocking to my son.
    – My son was deeply shocked by that car accident.
  5. The report about a nine-year-old kid trying to help the homeless touched thousands of people’s hearts.
    因為主詞跟受詞都很常,在這裡用粗體將動詞表示出來
    – The report about a nine-year-old kid trying to help the homeless was touching.
    – Thousands of people were touched by the report.
  6. May impressed me with her knowledge of birds.
    (May’s knowledge of birds impressed me.)
    – May’s knowledge of birds was impressive.
    這個字不用ing結尾當形容詞
    – I was impressed by(或with) her knowledge of birds.
  7. It amazed his mother that he had done all his homework in just one hour.
    虛主詞句型,真正的主詞是後面that帶領的名詞子句
    – It was amazing that he had done all his homework in just one hour.
    – His mother was amazed that he had done all his homework in just one hour.
  8. The snake scared me.
    – The snake was scary.
    沒有scaring轉成為形容詞的用法
    – I was scared by the snake.
  9. It always pleases me to take a walk in the woods.

ing結尾的情緒形容詞表達被修飾的名詞是引發人的情緒的刺激物

情緒動詞的現在分詞(ing結尾)可以當形容詞,用來描述讓人產生情緒的刺激物,下面介紹幾個例句,並一一解析,以便學習者能夠更清楚ing結尾的情緒形容詞的用法。

  1. It is a worrying situation.
    令人擔心的局面(被修飾的名詞situation,令人產生情緒,自己不會有情緒,所以用worrying)
    She told me something rather worrying about the student.
    她告訴我那個學生的一個令人擔心的情形(被修飾的名詞something是事件,不可能有情緒,所以要用worrying)
  2. That is a touching story.
    被修飾的名詞stroy不會有情緒,而是引起別人情緒的刺激物
  3. She had a worrying look on her face.
    使用ing結尾(主動態),表示主詞是刺激物,讓別人擔憂
  4. We worry about the surprising number of stray dogs in our neighborhood. 
    同樣,因為number沒有情緒,而是引發別人情緒的刺激物,所以要用ing結尾(主動態)
  5. The play was so boring that almost everyone fell asleep.

ed結尾的情緒形容詞表達被修飾的名詞的情緒

在這個部分,我們再多舉幾個表達情緒的(被動態 – ed結尾)情緒形容詞的例句

  1. I am worried about you.
    描述主詞的情緒,所以用ed結尾(被動態)
    She gave me a worried look.
    因為使用表達情緒的ed結尾(被動態),並且名詞look是主詞的表情,所以表示主詞很擔憂
  2. I was touched that she remembered my birthday.
  3. I am scared of height.
    懼高
  4. His father is pleased with his work.
    對他的工作很滿意 
  5. Almost everyone got so bored with the play that they fell asleep.
    無聊到睡著
  6. I am tired of my work.
    厭倦工作

高中常見情緒動詞與情緒形容詞的例句

下面的情緒動詞應該是高中才會學到

confuse 讓…感到困惑/ be confused about
puzzle讓…感到迷惑(困窘)/ be puzzled about
frustrate讓…感到挫折 / be frustrated by
disappoint 讓…感到失望 / be disappointed with人( at 事)
annoy 讓…感到煩躁 / be annoyed with人 (at事)
embarrass 讓…感到丟臉 / be embarrassed at (about)
frighten讓…感到害怕 / be frightened by
terrify讓…感到害怕
exhaust讓…感到精疲力竭
fascinate讓…著迷/ be fascinated with(by) 入迷的
enchant 讓…著迷 / be enchanted by
astonish讓…感到驚訝(詫異)/be astonished at (by)
satisfy 讓…感到滿意/ be satisfied with

我們在下面舉幾個例句,以便讓讀者多了解這些字

  1. The frustrated man yelled at his son.
    是被修飾的名詞man的情緒,所以用ed結尾(被動態)當形容詞
  2. We had an exhausting day yesterday.
    修飾的名詞day不會有情緒,所以用主動態ing結尾當形容詞
  3. Many people, especially teenagers and young adults, are fascinated with online games.
    主詞的情緒(著迷),所以用被動態ed結尾當形如詞
  4. He told me a fascinating story.
    被修飾的名詞story不會有情緒,而是引起別人情緒的刺激物,所以用主動態ing結尾當形容詞
  5. I am satisfied with my own progress.
    對自己的進步很滿意,是一種情緒
  6. My little brother is annoying.
    因為這不是主詞的情緒,主詞是引起別人情緒的刺激物,所以用主動態ing結尾為形容詞
  7. I am embarrassed about being looking at.
    我不太習慣被人看著,會覺得怪怪的,很尷尬(是一種情緒)
  8. They were astonished at the speed of the car.
    對車速感到驚訝,是主詞的情緒,所以用ed結尾當形容詞
  9. I was frightened by a spider.
    被蜘蛛嚇到,主詞的情緒用ed結尾的形容詞
  10. The finding of the experiment puzzled many scientists.
    實驗的結果(發現)讓很多科學家感到迷惑。puzzle在這裡當動詞
  11. The student had a puzzled expression on his face.
    因為expression on his face是表情的意思,主詞有某種情緒,才會有某種表情,所以用被動態ed結尾當形容詞

情緒副詞

有些情緒形容詞加上ly,就成為副詞,以下列出幾個超好用的情緒副詞與他們的例句

  1. The boy ran to his mom excitedly.
    興奮地跑向媽媽
    Sales for the first season were excitingly high.
    第一季的銷售量非常高(令人興奮地)
  2. Many students have surprisingly low self-esteem.
    很多學生非常自卑(self-esteem是看重自己,有令人驚訝地低的自重,就等於很自卑)
  3. She did astonishingly well on the math test.
    令人驚訝地好
  4. He shook his head frustratedly and said, “I can’t make it.”
    沮喪地搖搖頭
  5. It was a disappointingly boring story.
    超級無聊的故事(令人失望地)

因為情緒是人生活中很重要的一部份,所以如果將情緒動詞、情緒形容詞與副詞學好,對於口說與寫作會有很大的幫助。除此之外,學習者如果有其他文法上的疑惑,可以到我們『英文文法』專頁,看看有沒有相關文章。

Barshai Huang
Barshai Huang
從事英語教學二十多年,一路伴隨著學生從幼稚園成長到大學畢業,非常熟悉不同年齡的孩子,在英文學習上會遭遇到的問題與解決方法。擅長自然發音、文法、句子結構、英文閱讀理解策略與寫作的教學。我的教學理念是設計出帶給孩子樂趣與成功經驗的教學方案,孩子就會產生自信,並熱愛英文學習。
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