英文文法必考題型解題技巧 – 動詞 – 時態、分詞、不定詞與原型

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不管是多益、學測、指考、會考、全名英檢初級與中級,都一定會考的英文文法題型有動詞、連接詞、轉換詞、片語與代名詞,而其中以動詞的考題為最多。對於許多應考者來說,如果沒有清楚理解句子結構概念,很容易就做出錯誤判斷(請看:『理解句子結構,英文文法變簡單』一文)。為了讓讀者能專注於文法解析,不被看不懂的單字影響,本文以常用1200單字為主,介紹必考的動詞時態、單複數、分詞、不定詞與原型的解題思路

考試必考動詞題型

當看到答案選項為同一個動詞的不同變化時,要注意到的細節為

  • 單數或複數
  • 主動或被動
  • 時態
  • 第二個動作發生了沒
  • 選項是否為使役動詞與感官動詞的受詞所做的動作
  • 是否為特定句型

解題思路

解題思路為:

  1. 先在題目中,選項所在的句子裡,找出其動詞,找到後,找出做動作者(主詞)
    如果句子中只有一個動詞,也就是答案選項的位置,要從上下文找出時態,看主詞決定單數或複數,並且要注意是主動或被動
  2. 如果有兩組動詞 — 因為,一個句子只能有一個主詞與動詞 — 就要找出其連接詞。沒有連接詞,第二個動詞要變形為分詞(已經做了或正在做)、不定詞(動作還沒做)或原型 (使役動詞與感官動詞的受詞做的動作)
    — 如果有三組動詞,叫要有兩個連接詞,以此類推
    請注意:
    — that帶領的名詞子句,不當主詞時,that常被省略
    — which, whom, that帶領的形容詞子句,如果這個形容詞子句本身有主詞與動詞,which, whom, that也常被省略
  3. 如果有連接詞
    — 對等連接詞:利用同個句子中的動詞,決定動詞時態或使用分詞、或不定詞等
    — 從屬連接詞:依照句子的語意,決定時態(請注意:時間副詞子句與條件副詞子句沒有未來式)
    — 關係代名詞或副詞當連接詞:依照句子的語意,找出時態

考題分析

答案選項為句子的動詞

當答案選項為句子的動詞,且句子中只有一個動詞時:

  • 從上下文找出時態(看時間副詞或上下句的動詞時態)
  • 看主詞決定單數或複數,並且要注意是主動或被動

在以下的考題解析中,我們將題目句子中的主詞用底線標示:

  1. Playing games on the cellphone…popular with high school students.
    (A) is (B) are (C) being (D) to be  [108] 
    找不到句子的動詞,所以選項在動詞的位置,C跟D選項去掉。主詞是動名詞,代表一件事,所以要選單數,答案為A
  2. There …more than twenty clubs in our school.  Which one would you like to join?
    (A) has (B) have (C) is (D) are  [108] 
    找不到句子的動詞,所以選項在動詞的位置,there是虛主詞,真正的主詞在動詞後面,所以為複數,選項AC去掉。要記得,there is / there are兩個字合在一起是『有』的意思,不要選have,所以答案為D
  3. …that last piece of pie?  If not, can I have it?  I didn’t eat much this morning.
    (A) Had you eaten (B) Were you eating (C)Do you eat (D) Are you going to eat  [108]  
    看選項知道要考動詞時態,從第二句助動詞can得知,時間在現在,選項AB去掉。選項C是現在簡單式,敘述主詞的習慣,選項D為未來是,表示主詞還沒吃掉,符合語意,所以答案為D
  4. In my school days, I … to English radio programs every day.  That was how I learned English at that time.
    (A) listen (B) have listened (C) used to listen (D) was listening  [108]  
    從第一句時間副詞every day得知,動作為習慣動作,選項BD去掉。從第二句得知時間在過去,所以選項A去掉,答案為C — used to V原型表示過去的習慣
  5. Many famous people visit this restaurant.  Popular singers like A-mei and Jay Chou…here with their friends.
    (A) to be often seen (B) often seen (C) are often seen (D) and are often seen  [107] 
    在句子動詞的位置,選項ABD去掉,答案為C。這題陷阱是like:如果決定like是動詞,表示『喜歡』,句子的語意會很奇怪,所以要將like判斷為介系詞,語意為『像』
  6. Excuse me.  I really need to go now.  My kids…for me at school.
    (A) are waiting (B) were waiting (C) wait (D) waited  [106] 
    由第一句動詞need得知時間是現在,選項BD去掉。第二句語意應該孩子正在等,用進行式,答案為A
  7. The weather … rainy and cloudy in the last few days.  I hope the sun will come out soon.
    (A) has been (B) had been (C) will be (D) would be  [106] a
    從第二句動詞hope得知第一句的時間在現在,選項BD去掉。從第二句語意得知,天氣還沒放晴,還是多雲且下雨,所以選項C去掉。時間副詞in the last few days告訴我們,動作從幾天前一直到現在,要用現在完成式
  8. On Children’s Day, Ms. Lee, a famous storybook writer, …to Molly’s Bookstore to talk about her new book.  My two little kids just can’t wait to see her.
    (A) came (B) was coming (C) has come (D) is going to come  [104] d
    由第二句can’t wait得知,時間在現在,選項AB去掉。從第二句的語意得知,第一句的動作尚未發生,答案為D
  9. B&J Cafe…known as the tallest building in town.  However, O&G Restaurant became the tallest building in 2010.
    (A) has been (B) had been (C) is (D) would be  [104] 
    由第二句became得知,時間在過去,However,提示語意要和第一句矛盾,所以得知,B&J在O&G其前為最高建築物,選項ACD去掉,答案為B — 過去完成式的動作發生的時間早於過去式

當答案選項為句子的動詞,且句子中有兩組以上的動詞,也有連接詞(尋找連接詞時,要注意是否有連接詞被省略):

  • 對等連接詞:利用同個句子中的動詞,決定動詞時態或使用分詞、或不定詞等
  • 從屬連接詞:依照句子的語意,決定時態(請注意:時間副詞子句與條件副詞子句沒有未來式)
  • 關係代名詞或副詞當連接詞:依照句子的語意,找出時態

在以下的考題解析中,我們將題目句子中的主詞用底線標示、動詞用斜體字、連接詞用粗體字標示:

  1. Dad:  Have you brushed your teeth yet?
    Ann:  No, but Ibefore I go to bed.
    (A) haven’t (B) have (C) won’t (D) will  [107] 
    第一句Have告訴我們,時間在現在,第二句No告訴我們動作還沒做,並且省略了no後面的句子,以but告訴我們後面句意要和前面矛盾,所以要做,選項AC去掉,因為before I go to bed告訴我們動作還沒做,要用未來式,答案為D
  2. When the baby cried, Mr. Wu … in the kitchen and did not hear it.
    (A) cooked  (B) was cooking (C) has cooked (D) is going to cook [107] 
    看想選得知考動詞時態,選項在主要句子的動詞位置,用and連接Mr.Wu做的兩個動作。and為對等連接詞,第一個動詞要和第二個動詞時間相同,選項CD去掉。語意表示動作正在做,所以要用進行式,答案為B
  3. I don’t have any money with me because I … my wallet this morning.  
    (A) had lost  (B) would lose (C) lost (D) was losing  [107] 
    由第一句動詞得知敘述時間在現在,選項ABD去掉(過去完成式與過去進行式與過去未來式的敘述時間在過去)。because帶領原因副詞子句,原先先於結果,看語意錢已經掉了,答案為C
  4. … a map with you when you go to a place for the first time.
    (A) Have taken (B) Take (C) Taking (D) To take  [106] b
    when帶領時間副詞子句,句中動詞為現在簡單式,代表動作還沒發生(時間副詞子句沒有未來式),所以主要子句的動作也還沒發生。因為沒有主詞,所以是祈使句,答案為B
  5. My cat got excited when it saw the boy … the birds.
    (A) catches (B) catching (C) to catch (D) caught  [105] 
    兩組主詞動詞有一個連接詞,第三個動詞沒有連接詞連接,要變形,所以選項A去掉。因為選項動詞的動作者是感官動詞saw的受詞,所以,主動用原型,被動用Vpp,強調看到的時候正在做,要用Ving:語意上,男孩是做catch動作者,為主動,而貓看見他正在抓,所以興奮起來,答案為B
  6. Tonight Ill stay at the office until I … the work.
    (A) finish (B) am finishing (C) finished (D) will finish  [104] 
    由第一句知道敘述時間在現在,所以選項C去掉。untill帶領時間副詞子句,依照語意選項動作還沒做選項B去掉,但是時間副詞子句沒有未來式,選項D去掉,答案為A。
  7. Im not sure if Kevin … this morning, but if he does, I’ll tell him that you called.
    (A) will come in (B) comes in (C) has come in (D) came in  [103] 
    由I’m not sure得知,敘述時間是現在,Kevin的動作還沒做。因為if子句是名詞子句有未來是,答案為A
    請注意:當看到if子句時,要先判斷是副詞子句(沒有未來式)還是名詞子句(有未來式)
  8. Tommy uses chopsticks well, but his younger brothers …, so they usually eat with spoons.
    (A) don’t (B) doesn’t (C) aren’t (D) isn’t [102試辦會考] 
    三組主詞動詞,用兩個連接詞連接。這題考要如何簡答,要使用助動詞或Be動詞。從前面動詞uses可得知,動詞為普通動詞,所以選項CD去掉。做動作者為複數,答案為A。
  9. I … a bath when someone turned off the light.  I was scared and shouted for help.
    (A) was taking (B) took (C) am taking (D) had taken  [101基測] 
    從turned off這個動詞得知,時間在過去,選項C去掉。語意有我正在洗澡的味道,要用進行式,所以答案為A
  10. See?  The strange man I saw yesterday … around my house again.  Should I call the police?
    (A) walking (B) is walking (C) and walked (D) to walk  [101基測] 
    在句子中,I saw yesterday前面有名詞,saw後面沒有受詞,所以為形容詞子句,連接詞who被省略,完整的主詞為The strange man I saw yesterday,所以答案在動詞的位置,選項AD去掉。因為句子中只有兩個動詞,只能有一個連接詞,選項C去掉。從see得知,後面句子的動作正在發生,要用現在進行式,答案確定為B
  11. We … Aunt Polly for a long time, so we visited her last weekend.
    (A) don’t see (B) haven’t seen (C) hadn’t seen (D) wouldn’t see  [101基測] 
    從visited得知,時間在過去,選項AB去掉。語意上,沒看見的動作已經發生,選項D去掉。答案為C。
    連接詞為so,前面的句子是原因,原因先於結果,用過去完成式表示動作先於visited

答案選項不是句子的動詞

找出句子的主詞動詞後,發現答案選項不是句子中的動詞,且沒有連接詞,第二個動詞要變形(想要進一步熟悉動詞變形的原則,請看『動詞後面要接to V或是Ving』一文

  • 分詞(已經做了或正在做;主動或被動)
  • 不定詞(動作還沒做)
  • 原型 (使役動詞與感官動詞的受詞做的動作)

要注意是否為特定句型,要用特定的變形

如果找出句子的主詞動詞後,發現答案選項不是句子中的動詞,但有對等連接詞時

  • 看前面的動詞,找出第二個動詞的時間點
  • 或是否為準動詞(分詞、不定詞或原型)

在以下的考題解析中,我們將題目句子中的主詞用底線標示、動詞用斜體字、連接詞用粗體字標示:

  1. My dog Jimmy loves … with a comb.  Every time I comb his hair, he will close his eyes and fall asleep.
    (A) to brush (B) brushing (C) to be brushing (D) being brushed  [105] 
    找出句中動詞後,沒有看到連接詞,第二個動詞也沒有主詞,所以要變形:love後面可以接to V,也可以接Ving,,但是看語意,狗喜歡被刷毛,要用被動態,所以選項ABC去掉,答案為D
  2. Lisa’s room was very dirty.  It took her three hours… it.
    (A) clean (B) cleaned (C) has cleaned (D) to clean  [102試辦會考] 
    特定句型,It took 人 一段時間 to V,答案為D
  3. … in the daytime is not good for you.  You may not sleep well at night and feel tired the next day.
    (A) Slept (B) Sleeps (C) Have slept (D) Sleeping   [101基測] d
    選項雖然為動作,卻在主詞的位置上,需要用名詞,動詞加上ing變名詞,答案為A

答案選項是句子

當答案選項有主詞動詞,是一個句子時,要判斷他是屬於哪一種句子:

  • 主要子句
  • 副詞子句
  • 名詞子句
  • 形容詞子句

並且要確定有幾個動詞,看看答案是否要包括連接詞

  1.  Actor David Piper became tired of talking about the movie… after he was interviewed about it many times.
    (A) he is famous (B) that he is famous (C) that is famous  (D) he is famous for  [104] d 
    選項有主詞,但是接在the movie後面,而且語意描述the movie的特質,為形容詞子句,連接詞which被省略,the movie是形容詞子句的受詞(因為已經有主詞了)。選項ABC後面都不能接受詞,所以答案為D
  2. “Are you dating anyone special now?” is a question that popular movie stars … in an interview.
    (A) to be often asked (B) are often asked (C) being often asked (D) who are often asked  [102基測] 
    that子句帶領形容詞子句,後面接主詞動詞,所以答案必須是動詞,選項AC去掉。因為句中只有兩個動詞,只能用一個連接詞,所以選項D去掉,答案為B
  3. Jenny’s bag is very heavy because… filled with toy cars.
    (A) it is (B) they are (C) there is (D) there are  [106] 
    because帶領的句子動詞語意為充滿,前面的主詞必須是容器,there是虛主詞,選項CD去掉。前面句子的主詞bag為單數,所以答案為A
  4. Getting up early on a cold morning is not easy, ..?
    (A) are you (B) do you (C) does it (D) is it  [104] 
    本題考附加問句:找出主要句子的動詞,如果是be動詞,附加問句就用be動詞; 如果是一個字的普通動詞,附加問句用do / does / did; 如果有助動詞,附加問句就用那個助動詞。記得,附加問句要和主要子句相反 — 主要子句為肯定句,附加問句為否定句; 主要子句為否定句,附加問句為肯定句
    本題主要子句的動詞為is not,選項BC去掉。主詞為一個動作Ving,所以答案為D
  5. Somewhere along the road, … a shop which sells things from foreign countries.
    (A) that is (B) it is (C) it has (D) there is  [102基測]  
    這個考題考的是『有』的英文,要記得,當句子動詞的意思是有,卻沒有說出擁有者,則要用there is /there are; 如果從前面有說出擁有者,才用has / have
    選項位置為動詞位置,語意沒有說出擁有者,所以要用there is / there are看主詞得知為單數,所以答案為D

自我測試一下

下面有12題,請照著本文所提之解題思路做做看,是否比較清楚知道如何解答考動詞、時態、分詞、不定詞與原型的題型

  1. Playing sports at least three times a week … good for your health.
    (A) is (B) are (C)  has (D) have  [105] 
  2. Melody has a great interest in planting flowers, but her sister … .  She can’t even stay in the garden for one minute.
    (A) can’t (B) doesn’t (C) isn’t (D) won’t  [101基測] 
  3. It took the police lots of time … who entered Liu’s house and killed her one year ago.
    (A) and found out (B) find out (C) finding out (D) to find out [107] 
  4. Smart Head, one of the hottest TV programs these days, … people free plane tickets to Hawaii if they can answer 20 questions correctly in 15 minutes.
    (A) have given (B) gives (C) giving (D) to give  [103] 
  5. Abby:  Too bad you couldn’t come to the beach with us.  It was so much fun there!  You must come next time.
    Bree:  No, thanks.  I don’t think … any fun.  I can’t swim.
    (A) I was having (B) I’ve had (C) I have (D) I’ll have  [101基測] 
  6. Somewhere along the road, … a shop which sells things from foreign countries.
    (A) that is (B) it is (C) it has (D) there is  [102基測]  
  7. All the excuses Nick made …a lot about how much he hates to do the job.
    (A) say (B) saying (C) which say (D) to say  [106]  
  8. Mom:  Peter, be sure to finish your school report before you go to bed.
    Peter:  OK, Mom, I … .
    (A) am (B) do (C) have (D) will  [102基測] 
  9. Lily:  When will Uncle Tom come to see me?
    Mom:  He’ll visit us this weekend.  He … me that by e-mail.
    (A) told (B) tells (C) will tell (D) was going to tell  [102基測] 
  10. No one thought James would appear at Katie’s party.  So when he …, everyone was surprised and could not believe their eyes.
    (A) would (B) was (C) had (D) did  [104] 
  11. It’s cold outside; … sure to put on your coat before you leave the house.
    (A) be (B) it is (C) being (D) it will be [102試辦會考] 
  12. Tom … ten pounds over the past two months.  He looks much thinner now.
    (A) loses (B) has lost (C) will lose (D) was losing  [104] 

解答:
1.  A   2.  B  3.  D  4.  B  5.  D  6.  D  7.  A  8.  D  9.  A  10.  D  11. A   12.B

本文所有有關動詞時態與動狀詞的題目都是由101-108年基測與會考節選出來。如果你有其他文法上的疑惑,可以到我們『英文文法』專頁,看看有沒有文章探討相關文法問題。

Barshai Huang
Barshai Huang
從事英語教學二十多年,一路伴隨著學生從幼稚園成長到大學畢業,非常熟悉不同年齡的孩子,在英文學習上會遭遇到的問題與解決方法。擅長自然發音、文法、句子結構、英文閱讀理解策略與寫作的教學。我的教學理念是設計出帶給孩子樂趣與成功經驗的教學方案,孩子就會產生自信,並熱愛英文學習。
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