英文倒裝句的解析、用法與例句

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在面對面對話時,說話者可以使用表情、手勢、語調等來強調重點。寫作時,作者也會應用許多手法來強調某個概念的重要性,倒裝句是其中一種程度較高的句型。對於有英文作文考試需求的讀者,我們建議,務必要好好學習倒裝句型。因為,寫作時,為了表現英文程度而使用自己不熟悉的英文單字,如果用錯,就造成反效果了。反而,多利用各種句型變化與像倒裝句這一類特殊句型,即使,用字簡單,還是會讓人覺得自己的英文程度很好。此外,各種倒裝句也是學校英文考試、英檢、多益、學測等考試中常出現的文法題型。這篇文章中,我們會詳細解釋倒裝句的句子結構,並由淺入深地介紹各種倒裝句型。

什麼是倒裝句?

英文的基本句子結構,先寫主詞,再寫動詞,然而,在一些情況下,必須改變這個順序,先寫動詞,再寫主詞,因為跟原本的句子結構顛倒了,這類句子就被稱為倒裝句。

當作者為了強調,可以使用倒裝的手法,強調整個句意或句子的某個部份。不過,有兩點要注意。首先,倒裝句會讓文章顯得比較正式的,如果,是朋友之間的書信來往,或不想讓文章顯得太正式,就不要使用倒裝句型。第二點是不要在一篇文章中,寫太多的倒裝句,會導致強調語意的效果沒了,也會讓讀者的閱讀體驗變不好。文章越短,倒裝句要用的越少,才會有畫龍點睛之妙。

回到主題,當我們說將動詞移動到主詞前面時,並不是所有的動詞都能直接移到主詞前面。基本上,有2種倒裝的方法:

  • 一種是移動be動詞或助動詞到主詞前
  • 第二種直接將普通動詞移到主詞前

其實,大家在國中或國小時就學過倒裝句了,只是那時,老師並沒有說這些句子是倒裝句型而已。下面,我們先複習一下,大家非常熟悉的倒裝句型

第一種倒裝手法

我們先透過Yes / No疑問句,解釋第一種倒裝的手法:

  1. 當動詞是be動詞或完整的動詞組合的第一個字是be動詞時,就將be動詞移到主詞前面
  2. 當動詞是普通動詞,要依照單複數或是時態,生do、does或did,將之放到主詞前面,且動詞改為原形。
  3. 當句子中的動詞前有助動詞,則直接移助動詞到主詞前。
  1. She is a girl. 
    Is she a girl?
  2. They study hard.
    –Do they study hard?
  3. Mike enjoys reading.
    –Does Mike enjoy reading?
  4. They will come tomorrow.
    –Will they come tomorrow?
  5. We have got everything we want.
    –Have we got everything we want?

第一種手法的例句

在對話中,我們常常會簡單的附和別人,例如:我也是,我也不這樣做等。這類附和的簡答句,在小學或國中的時候也學過,當然在文章中也常出現。

  1. A: I don’t like her. 
    B: Neither do I. 
  2. A: I went shopping yesterday.
    B: So did I.

第二種倒裝手法的倒裝句

直接引述句

寫作時,我們會使用對話來增加故事的真實性。例如:John said, “Are you going to school?” 這種句型就叫做直接引述句。當連續有許多直接引述句時,有時,為了不顯得呆板,我們會先寫出說話內容,再寫出說話者,這也是倒裝句的一種。要注意,這種直接將動詞移到主詞前面的倒裝句,主詞不可以用代名詞,也就是說,如果主詞是代名詞的話,就不能倒裝。

  • He said, “Can I go with you?” “No, I don’t think so,” said his mother.

要注意,當主詞是代名詞時,不可以倒裝喔!

  • The woman looked at the boy and asked, “Who broke my window?” “I don’t know,” he said.

here / there句型

通常這種形式的倒裝句,如果動詞不是be動詞,口吻會比較正式。但是,有些在口語中也常使用。還記得,課本中的對話單元嗎?Here comes the bus.很熟吧!下面再介紹幾個例句:

  1. Here comes the girl.
  2. There goes all my money!

要注意,當主詞是代名詞時,不可以倒裝喔!

  1. Here he comes.

here/there句型還有一種是be動詞,不是普通動詞,所以另外列出討論。

  1. Here is the change.
  2. Here is John.
  3. There is a table.
    這個句子中,主詞是a table,動詞是is,所以也是倒裝句的一種

這個句型也一樣,即使是be動詞,只要主詞是代名詞,就不能倒裝。

  1. There he is.
  2. Here you are.

什麼句子要倒裝?

了解了倒裝句的句子結構,與倒裝手法後,我們來介紹什麼句子可以倒裝。雖然倒裝句的目的是為了強調,但是,不是想要強調哪個句子,就直接將那個句子倒裝。除了上面已經舉例說明過的疑問句等三種句型外,還有以下比較複雜的句型:

第一種手法的倒裝句

  1. 否定副詞在主詞前面,句子要倒裝
  2. nor句型
  3. 補語移到主詞前面,句子要倒裝
  4. so…that跟such…that的句型,為了強調,可以將so與such的部分移到主詞前面,句子要倒裝
  5. only帶領的副詞片語在主詞前面,句子要倒裝
  6. 假設語氣的副詞子句的部分動詞為were、had、should,省略連接詞if,句子要倒裝,這樣的句子比較正式
  7. 被動態與進行式的Ving跟Vpp移到主詞前面,句子要倒裝
  8. the 比較級,the比較級的句型,當動詞是be動詞時,為了強調,可以將後面的句子倒裝
  9. as當連接詞,但語意為如同

第二種手法的倒裝句:

  1. here / there句型
  2. 動詞為完全不及物動詞(例如:stand, lie, sit),為了強調地方副詞,可以將它移到句首,倒裝時,直接將完全不及物動詞移到主詞前。

除了少數幾個句型,大部分的倒裝句要高中才學到,所以有些字超過國中生的單字。但是在舉例時,我們會盡量搭配比較簡單的字來解釋。現在,我們來一一介紹各種倒裝句型。

否定副詞在主詞前面,句子要倒裝

當一個副詞,其意義是否定的時候,就叫做否定副詞,最為大家所熟悉的否定副詞就是not。為了強調否定的意味,我們可以把否定副詞移到主詞前面,這時,句子一定要倒裝。不過,否定副詞的型態可能只是一個字、也可能是一個片語、或一個子句前面加上not使它變成否定意味。下面,我們依照單字、片語與句子三個部分,舉例來介紹這種類型的倒裝句

否定副詞單字

在這裡,先舉幾個常見的否定副詞的句子,將否定副詞(用底線標示)移到主詞前,並將句子倒裝(倒裝的動詞用粗體字標示),方便大家理解。

  1. I have never been to Japan.
    Never have I been to Japan.
  2. I seldom went there.
    Seldom did I go there.

下面的例句中,否定副詞用底線標示出來,而倒裝的動詞用粗體字標示。

  1. Little do I know about his girlfriend.
  2. Little did I understand what you were talking about.
  3. Little did he imagine how terrible the place would be.
  4. He rarely pays attention to his wife. 
    Rarely does he pay attention to his wife.
  5. Rarely do we get to see the president. 
  6. Seldom have I seen such a beautiful view.
    第一到第六句中,little, rarely, seldom的意思都是幾乎沒有做過…,翻成中文,就是很少…
  7. The mother had hardly seen her kid when she cried.
    Hardly had the mother seen her kid when she cried.
  8. Scarcely had I started my meal when the phone rang.
    1. Barely had we finished the game when the rain started to fall.
      第七到第九句中,hardly、scarcely、barely的意思相近,都是幾乎不能夠做到…的意思。請注意,三句的語意都是ㄧ(動作A)…就(動作B)…,雖然好似同時發生,但是,如果要強迫分先後,根據語意,動作A先發生,要用完成式,動作B後發生,用簡單式,因為是敘述發生過的事,所以用過去完成式跟過去簡單式。還有,因為句子中沒有比較級的字,連接詞用when或before都可以,就是不能用than。(如果想要更清楚過去完成式這個時態,可以閱讀『徹底理解英文16個時態

否定副詞 - 片語

一樣,我們先用大家比較熟悉的否定副詞片語的句子來解釋,句子是如何變成倒裝句。

I have never heard of him before.
Never before have I heard of him.

The man had no sooner seen the police than he ran away. 
No sooner had the man seen the police than he ran away.
(注意:這個句子中,因為sooner是比較級,所以連接詞要用than)

He will not only come back tomorrow, but he will also bring a lot of gifts for the kids.

Not only will he come back tomorrow but he will also bring a lot of gifts for the kids. 
在這個句子中,not only A but also B,因為A跟B是形容詞,在句中,not only修飾形容詞,所以是否定副詞。

提醒一下,考試時,請不要看到n0t only在句首,就急著要選倒裝的選項,要先判斷not only在句子中的功能是副詞嗎?
比較:Not only Mary but also John plays basketball well.
這個句子中,not only…but also連結Mary跟John當句子中的主詞,所以not only的功能並不是否定副詞,句子不能倒裝。

下面,再介紹一些大家比較不熟悉的否定副詞的倒裝句。一樣,否定副詞片語用底線標示出來

  1. The car was not only slow but it was also very old.
    –Not only
    was the car slow, but it was also very old.
  2. I had no sooner arrived than they all started to laugh.
    No sooner
    had I arrived than they all started to laugh.
  3. No way are we going there.
    絕不可能去那裡(這個句型較口語)
  4. Nowhere were the kids more excited than in the amusement park.
    沒有一個地方比遊樂園更讓孩子興奮
  5. In no way am I going to do so.
    此句中,in no way是副詞片語,意思是絕不做…。因為片語中有no,導致它成為否定副詞,移到主詞前面時,句子要倒裝
  6. Under no circumstances should we allow this to happen.
    不管什麼情況下,都不應該讓這件事發生
  7. At no time should you go swimming alone.
  8. On no condition should children be exposed to drugs.
  9. On no account should little kids take away anything without asking their teachers first.
  10. In no case should people hurt others.
    第六到第十句的否定副詞片語的意思相近,都是絕對不…他們的用法很正式,語氣也強烈,使用時,要注意
  11. Not once did she look at me at the party.
    一次也沒有看我
  12. Not often does he attend parties.
  13. Not always did we know who was right.
  14. Not in a million years will I gamble again.
    我再也不賭博了
  15. Not before looking at it did I know what it was.
  16. Not for a moment did I think about him.

否定副詞 - 句子形式

這一類的句子,原本是主要子句為否定句,後面接副詞子句,將主要子句的not或never放在副詞子句前面,整個移到主要子句的主詞前面,再將主要子句倒裝。下面先用簡單的句子,一步步分析句子的變化(句子中,否定副詞跟副詞子句用底線標示出來):

I did not do my homework until my mother came back.
Not until my mother came back did I do my homework.
直譯:我沒做寫功課的這個動作,一直沒做到我媽媽回來。
也就是,直到我媽回來,我才開始寫功課

  1. I did not know where I was until I asked a passer-by.
    –Not until I asked a passer-by did I know where I was.
  2. I did not believe what he told me until I saw it myself.
    –Not until I saw it myself did I believe what he told me.
  3. I have not seen such a  great movie since I was a child.
    –Not since I was a child have I seen such a great movie.

nor句型

在對等連接詞中,國人最不熟悉也最少用的字就是nor。也因為很少使用,所以,很多人不知道nor連接的句子要倒裝。要注意,因為,nor的語意是也不,所以,要使用它當連接詞時,nor前面的句子的語意必須是否定的,而nor後面的句子必須是肯定句。以中文來解釋,其實就能夠理解。例如

我不喜歡你,他(也不)喜歡你:這個句子前面的部分是否定句,後面的部分,把(也不)遮住,不就是肯定句了嗎?

  1. Mary will not go, nor will I.
  2. John can’t speak English, nor can Mary.
  3. No one has volunteered for the job, nor do we expect anyone to volunteer in the future.

補語移到主詞前面,句子要倒裝

在『理解句子結構,英文文法變簡單』一文中,有說明Be動詞後面是補語。其實,有時候,be動詞後面的片語具有地方或時間的概念,為什麼我要強調他是補語呢?因為,副詞具有可移動性,不會影響句子結構。但是,如果將補語移到主詞前面,句子就要倒裝。下面舉幾個例子來表示出這個差別:

  1. A dog was out the door.
    Out the door was a dog.
  2. A lot of people are in the park today.
    In the park are a lot of people today.
  3. All the money we had lost was on the table.
    On the table was all the money we had lost.
  4. Mary’s brother was happy about his acceptance into his dream school.
    Happy about his acceptance into his dream school was Mary’s brother.
  5. The scenery of the little town in Central Canada is beautiful beyond belief.
    Beautiful beyond belief is the scenery of the little town in Central Canada.

被動態與進行式的Ving跟Vpp移到主詞前面,句子要倒裝

當句子為被動態或進行式時,它的動詞結構為be Vpp(過去分詞)或是beVing(現在分詞),為了強調分詞,我們可以將分詞跟他後面的部分移到主詞前面,再將主詞跟be動詞倒裝。

  1. The market is located in the center of the city.
    –Located in the center of the city
    is the market.
  2. The days when all the family members gather on Chinese New Year’s Eve are gone.
    Gone are the days when all the family members gather on Chinese New Year’s Eve.
  3. The forests in Southern Australia were burning out of control.
    Burning out of control were the forests in Southern Australia.
  4. The boy with brown glasses was coming in last in the race.
    Coming in last in the race was the boy with brown glasses.

so...that跟such...that的句型

還記得這兩個句型嗎?有需要的話,可以閱讀『so和such的用法分別』這篇文章。寫作時,為了強調,作者可以把句子中含有so和such的完整概念片語移到句首。下面,先舉兩個例句,說明倒裝的過程:

Her son is so busy that she seldom sees him.
將so busy移到句首,her son is倒裝成is her son,再寫that子句
So busy is her son that she seldom sees him.

He is such a smart boy that he learns quickly.
將such a smart boy移到句首,he is倒裝,再寫that子句
Such a smart boy is he that he learns quickly.

了解了這種句型的倒裝過程後,可以多練習造這種倒裝句型,以便寫作時,增加文章的句型變化。以下, 我們再多舉幾個例子。

  1. I was so scared that I couldn’t move.
    –So scared was I that I couldn’t move.
  2. The music was so loud that I couldn’t work.
    –So loud was the music that I couldn’t work.
  3. They play the piano so loudly that the neighbors called the police.
    –So loudly did they play the piano that the neighbors called the police.
  4. It was such an awful day that we did not go hiking.
    –Such an awful day was it that we did not go hiking.
  5. My professor gave me such useful advice that everything went well.
    –Such useful advice did my professor give me that everything went well.

only帶領的副詞片語

一般來說,句首副詞片語或子句前面,如果有only,句子就要倒裝。語意是:只有在這個情況下,主要句子所敘述的事情才成立,其他情況都不行 – 想想,這也有點像否定其他的情況的味道了,不是嗎?

  1. Only after the meeting did I realize the importance of the project.
  2. Only after she went to sleep was she able to relax.
  3. Only when the plane landed safely did he calm down.
  4. Only when I sleep can I forget about it.
  5. Only if you pay attention, will you learn.
  6. Only now can I understand what really happened.
  7. Only then did I realized that I had lost my key.
  8. Only by studying hard, will they pass the exams.
  9. Only in this way can I get my work done.

比較級的倒裝

為了強調或讓文章句型多變化,我們可以把比較級的句子中,than後面的部分倒裝。讓我們來看看如何做:

I speak English better than my sister does.
–I speak English better than does my sister.

就這麼簡單,請看下面更多的例子

  1. Mark runs faster than do all his schoolmates.
  2. The boy is quieter than is his classmate.

The比較級, the 比較級

先來複習一下,The 比較級,the 比較級的句子。

The more, the better.越多越好
The more money she made, the better her family lived.她錢賺得越多,她家人生活過得越好

相信大家都回憶起這個句型了。我們可以將這個句型的後半部分的主詞動詞(不是前半部分喔!)倒裝,來強調句意。
The more money she made, the better did her family live.

  1. The higher the eagle flew, the farther he could see.
    –The higher the eagle flew, the farther could he see.
  2. The longer I waited, the less patient I became.
    –The longer I waited, the less patient did I become.

假設語氣

假設語氣的句子中(想要進一步了解假設語氣,請看『if句型用法解析』),如果副詞子句的動詞為were、should跟had,可以將它們移到主詞前面,if省略,以強調句意。

  1. If you had come earlier, you would have met him.
    Had you come earlier, you would have met him.
  2. If Jane should come, let me know.
    Should Jane come, let me know.
    萬一Jane來了
  3. If I were you, I wouldn’t say anything.
    Were I you, I wouldn’t say anything.

there句型

前面有說到,here / there句型也是倒裝句,而且當動詞是come、go跟be動詞,常在口語使用。但是,如果不是的話,就會比較正式。要注意:這種句型如果主詞是代名詞,不能倒裝。下面我們舉幾個其他完全不及物動詞的例子

  1. Many people believe there exists life on Mars.
  2. There lived an old witch deep in the forest.
  3. There stands a soldier at the gate of the building.

完全不及物動詞的倒裝句

當動詞是完全不及物動詞時,後面是地方副詞,我們可以將副詞移到句首,句子倒裝,達到強調的目的。同樣地,如果主詞是代名詞時,不可以倒裝。

  1. The man sat on the sofa.
    –On the sofa sat the man.
  2. The baby slept in the cradle.
    In the cradle slept the baby.

如果有其他文法問題,可以進入我們的文法頁面,看看是否有討論該文法問題的相關文章。

Barshai Huang
Barshai Huang
從事英語教學二十多年,一路伴隨著學生從幼稚園成長到大學畢業,非常熟悉不同年齡的孩子,在英文學習上會遭遇到的問題與解決方法。擅長自然發音、文法、句子結構、英文閱讀理解策略與寫作的教學。我的教學理念是設計出帶給孩子樂趣與成功經驗的教學方案,孩子就會產生自信,並熱愛英文學習。
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