who, whom, whose的用法分別

who,whom跟whose這三個關係代名詞是經常出現的考題選項。然而,有許多學生對於who, whom, 與whose在關係子句的用法,不是很清楚,又沒辦法死背。因此,在作答時常有困擾,無法確定自己的選擇是否正確。一個最簡單的方式就是用句子結構的概念去理解who,whom和whose這三個關係代名詞的用法,請看以下的說明。

who,whom,whose的用法

認識英文句子裡的主詞、受詞與所有格

英文句子結構裡,有主詞跟受詞。將一個英文句子的動詞標示出來,在動詞前面的名詞就叫做主詞,也就是做動作者,而在動詞後面的名詞就是受詞,也就是接受動作者。還有,在介系詞後面的名詞也是受詞(要注意:介系詞後面的名詞並不是接受主詞的動作者)。當要表達名詞的擁有者時,會在名詞前面使用所有格。下面的例句中,動詞用粗體字呈現,主詞用中括號,受詞用小括號,而所有格用底線標示出來。

  1. [John] is at (the table).
  2. [His father] drove to (Taipei) last Sunday.
  3. [Lily] called on (John’s mother) at 7:00.
  4. [They] went to (the park) with (their uncle).

認識who,whom,whose疑問句的造法

造疑問句時,句子的主詞動詞要倒裝,再依照詢問的資訊為何,選擇疑問詞放在句首。who問做動作的人是誰,也就是主詞,所以後面會直接跟著動詞。whom問接受動作的人是誰,也就是受詞。同時,whom還用來問跟在介系詞後面的人是誰,因為,介系詞後面要接受詞(這個觀念很重要)。除此之外,whom因為問的是受詞,所以它的後面會有主詞跟動詞。至於whose,則是問誰的,所以whose後面會接名詞。接下來,將上面的例句改變為who、whom和whose的問句。

  1. Who is at the table?
    遮住who,剩下的句子部分沒有主詞,所以不用倒裝
  2. Who drove to Taipei last Sunday?
  3. Whose father drove to Taipei last Sunday?  
    遮住whose father,剩下的句子部分也沒有主詞,所以不用倒裝
  4. Whose mother did Lily call on at 7:00?
    遮住whose mother,剩下的句子部分有主詞,所以要倒裝,動詞為called,用助動詞did,放到主詞前面,再將call改為原型
  5. Whom did Lily call on at 7:00?
  6. Whom did they go to the park with?
    With whom did they go to the park?
    (我們也可以把介系詞移到whom前面去)

請注意第6項裡面的兩個問句:因為whom只能代替受詞,所以,在第一個問句裡,介系詞被留在最後面,不可以省略。而在第二個問句裡,介系詞直接跟著whom移到句首。

關係代名詞who whom whose的用法區別

用who,whom,whose造名詞子句

名詞子句的造法其實跟疑問句很像,只是名詞子句不倒裝,也就是說,不把be動詞跟助動詞移到主詞前面。而且,因為名詞子句是名詞的一種,所以它在句子裡會當主詞、受詞或補語。

先將上面的who,whom跟whose的疑問句變成名詞子句 – 要注意將句子變回沒有倒裝的樣子時,動詞的變化 – 再放在I don’t know的後面當know的受詞。

  1. I don’t know who is at the table.
    因為who是疑問句的主詞,原本疑問句就沒有倒裝,
  2. I don’t know who drove to Taipei last Sunday.
  3. I don’t know whose father drove to Taipei last Sunday.
  4. I don’t know whose mother Lily called on at 7:00.
    將句子變成沒有倒裝時,助動詞did被拿掉,所以動詞要改回過去式
  5. I don’t know whom Lily called on at 7:00.
    將句子變成沒有倒裝時,助動詞did被拿掉,所以動詞要改回過去式
  6. I don’t know whom they went to the park with.
    I don’t know with whom they went to the park.

who,whom跟whose帶領的名詞子句也可以當主詞,但是因為英文不喜歡主詞太長,一來顯得頭重腳輕,二來如果主詞本身具有動詞,會影響讀者的理解。所以,為了避免誤解,當名詞子句當主詞時,會使用it代替主詞,將真正的主詞移到句子後面,這種句型稱為虛主詞句型。

  1. Who is at the table doesn’t matter.
    改為
    It doesn’t matter who is at the table.
  2. Whose mother Lily called on at 7:00 is unknown.
    改為
    It is unknown whose mother Lily called on at 7:00.
  3. Whom they went to the park with is not important.
    改為
    It is not important whom they went to the park with.

    It is not important with whom they went to the park.

用who,whom,whose造形容詞子句

顧名思義,形容詞子句就是形容詞,用來描述名詞的特色。因為它是兩個字以上構成一個完整的形容詞的概念,要放在名詞的後面,所以,形容詞子句的6w前面,一定會有這個子句所修飾的名詞,稱為先行詞。(想要進一步了解形容詞子句,請看『補述用法與限定用法』一文)

who, whom跟whose的前面的名詞(先行詞)一定是人:下面的例子裡,形容詞子句用底線標示出來,形容詞子句的動詞用粗體字,而形容詞子句前的名詞(先行詞)用中括號標示出來。要記得,英文句子的基本結構是先寫主詞,再寫動詞,如果有受詞,要緊緊跟在動詞的後面。

請注意:whose在形容詞子句中,先行詞可以不是人,代替非人所有格

  • who帶領的形容詞子句的先行詞,就是這個子句的主詞(做動作者)
    Sam didn’t go to the party with Mary.  Mary was his neighbor.
    =Sam didn’t go to the party with [Mary], who was his neighbor.
    第二句的Mary是句子的主詞,用who代替,接到第一句Mary的後面,這樣讀者就知道who=Mary
  • whom帶領的形容詞子句的先行詞,是這個子句的受詞(接受動作者)
    The girl is John’s sister.
    Sam went to the party with the girl.
    =[The girl] whom Sam went to the party with is John’s sister.
    =[The girl] with whom Sam went to the party is John’s sister.
    第二句中,the girl是介系詞with的受詞,所以用whom代替the girl,移到第一句the girl後面,這樣讀者就知道whom=the girl。在這個句子裡,with也可以跟著whom一起提到前面
  • whose帶領的形容詞子句的先行詞,在後面的形容詞子句里是所有格
    John is my best friend.
    His sister went to the party with Sam.
    =John, whose sister went to the party with Sam, is my best friend.

    第二個句子中,his=John’s是所有格,用whose代替,並將這個句子移到第個句子John的後面,這樣讀者就知道whose sister=John’s sister

  • whose也可以帶領形容詞子句的先行詞不是人的所有格
    I saw a book. 
    The cover of the book is red.
    或是The book’s cover is red.(這種寫法是錯誤的,但是,用這樣來解釋為什麼whose可以代替非人所有格,比較清楚)
    =I saw a book the cover of which is red.
    =I saw a book whose cover is red.

以下,我們再舉幾個例子:

  • Under the tree, there are many boys.  Some of them are playing chess.
    =Under the tree, there are many boys, some of whom are playing chess.
  • His brother is a lawyer. His girlfriend is a famous singer,
    =His brother, whose girlfriend is a famous singer, is a lawyer.
    在his brother後面打逗號再加上形容詞子句,代表他只有一個兄弟
  • I don’t know anyone who lives in my neighborhood.

了解了who, whom, whose的用法後,趕快練習用它們來造名詞子句與形容詞子句。隨著造的句子越多,對這幾個字的用法就越熟練,考試的時候,就會非常清楚選擇哪個答案才對。如果想要了解關係副詞when跟where與in which, on which, 等介系詞加上which的關係,請閱讀『in which, where, when – 介系詞加which的用法』一文。

此外,如果你有其他文法上的疑惑,可以到我們『英文文法』專頁,看看有沒有文章探討相關文法問題。

Barshai Huang
Barshai Huang
從事英語教學二十多年,一路伴隨著學生從幼稚園成長到大學畢業,非常熟悉不同年齡的孩子,在英文學習上會遭遇到的問題與解決方法。擅長自然發音、文法、句子結構、英文閱讀理解策略與寫作的教學。我的教學理念是設計出帶給孩子樂趣與成功經驗的教學方案,孩子就會產生自信,並熱愛英文學習。
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