情緒形容詞要接哪個介系詞 – of, at, with, about, for還是to?

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對於學習英文的人來說,一想到介系詞,頭就一痛,完全找不出這個詞使用with,那個詞使用of的規則是什麼。難道,只能死背哪個詞用哪個介系詞代表哪個意思嗎?

其實,英文中,介系詞的功能在表達其前後兩個字之間的關係。雖然介系詞本身無法用中文明確地翻譯出來,但是,了解不同介系詞所表達的關係,有助於我們記憶包含有介系詞的片語的意思。不只如此,在寫作或考試時,也可以幫助我們判斷要使用哪個介系詞。在這篇文章中,我們會介紹表達情緒的形容詞後面要接哪個介系詞。(想要多瞭解常用介系詞的用法的讀者,可以閱讀『to, for以及of的用法與分別』跟『at, on和in的用法解析』兩篇文章)

相同的情緒形容詞,使用不同的介系詞代表不同的意思

大部分的人幾乎每天都有情緒,會為一個人,一件事,一本書或一句話而產生喜、怒、哀、樂、無聊等不同情緒:可能對某個人感到失望,因為某件事感到生氣,或害怕去做某件事。這些日常生活最常見的話題,要如何使用英文來表達呢?I am angry. 對誰?對什麼事?I am afraid. 怕什麼?如果要說清楚引發自己情緒的人或事件,我們就一定要用到介系詞,那到底要用哪個介系詞才對呢?其實,一個形容詞後面,並不一定只能使用一個介系詞,使用不同的介系詞,是要表達不同的語意; 而在有些情況,介系詞是跟後面的名詞形成一個時間副詞或地方副詞的概念。所以不要看到形容詞後面有介系詞,就認為這是片語。以下,我們用幾個常見的情緒形容詞為例,一一解釋,什麼情況,搭配不同的介系詞,與其語意上的不同。

excited

excited about 用來表達對一件即將到來的事件感到興奮(近年來在運動報導與一些年輕人間,開始有人使用excited for,如果閱讀新聞或與人聊天時,不要太意外,語言本來就具有變遷性。但是,我們還是要使用about,等以後越來越多用用for,再來使用excited for。)

  1. I am excited about the trip.
    對於即將到來的旅行,感到興奮
  2. She is excited about the party.

excited by帶出引起主詞興奮的情緒的動作者(excite是動詞,表示主詞讓受詞興奮起來。被動態的真正做動作者,用by來帶出來)

  1. The dog was excited by the cat.
    這隻狗本來乖乖的,卻被貓激起興奮的情緒(可能是看到貓,可能是貓逗他)
  2. Hydrogen can be excited by heat.
    通常講化學變化的時候,都用by

excited for 表示主詞為了別人的事(成就或幸運)而感到興奮或高興

  1. My sister won the game.  I was excited for her.
    這句話的意思是,我為我妹妹感到高興=I am happy for my sister.

excited at用來表示讓主詞興奮的是一個想法,預期或可能性(這個用法比較少,現在大多用about)

  1. We are excited at the thought of winning the game.
  2. She’s excited at the possibility of getting hired.

下面的句子是介系詞與其後面的名詞構成地方、時間、與原因副詞的例子

  1. They were excited at the playground.
    at the playground構成地方副詞
  2. My brother often gets excited for no good reason.
    for no good reason構成原因副詞
  3. The players have been excited for about three days.
    for about three days構成時間副詞

angry

angry about 通常表達主詞對於一個主題,或一個問題與狀況感到生氣

  1. I am so angry about the pollution problems in my hometown.
  2. They were angry about what she said to the teacher.
  3. The students were angry about how they were treated in the restaurant.

angry with 則表示在生某個人的氣

  1. My mother’s angry with me.
  2. I was so angry with one of my classmates for taking away my pen without asking me.

angry at也可以表達在生某個人的氣,或是表示被某個東西惹毛了

  1. His girlfriend is angry at him for cheating on her.
  2. She was so angry at her phone for not working when she was lost.
  3. Her mother was angry at the toys left messily on the floor.

disappointed

disappointed at/ about用來表達對於事件的結果未達到內心的期待(但現在比較少用at)

  1. We were deeply disappointed at the result.
  2. I was disappointed about the way it happened.

disappointed in /with則表示主詞對於一個人的失望

  1. My parents are bitterly disappointed in me.
    當使用in的時候,表示主詞的強烈的失望,甚至已經對受詞的能力失去信心,或感到被背叛
  2. The teacher was disappointed with the student.
    如果只是表達主詞對受詞的能力或性格本質沒有達到自己的期望,感到有點失望,並沒有特定的事件引發,就用with

disappointed with也可以用來表示對一個產品、表現或決定的失望(主詞對於某個產品、某人的表現有一個期望值)

  1. The teacher is disappointed with the performance of his students.
  2. I’m disappointed with my new computer.

disappointed by則指出做出讓主詞失望的事的人或決定

  1. I was disappointed by my sister.  She said she would help me with my homework, but she wasn’t at home until midnight.

但是,根據google趨勢顯示,現在不管人或是事物,使用with的人較多,所以如果寫作時,不確定用哪一個,就用with)

情緒形容詞與介系詞的搭配法則

介系詞是一個語言習慣用法,語言具有可變性,會隨著不同地方與時代的人的習慣用法而產生變化,而在變化中,有些細微的語意上的差異會消失。學習介系詞最好的方法是,在學習新單字時,將連用介系詞一起記下,大量的使用,讓這個片語成為反射動作,成為習慣。

下面介紹的這些常見情緒形容詞與其介系詞的搭配法則,是我自己的記憶方法,希望對英文學習者有所助益。

接about的情緒形容詞

about的意思是有關:一想到有關某件事或某個主題,主詞就會產生某個特定情緒時,就用about。要記得,這個情緒並不是對著介系詞的受詞發作。

  1. I am angry about what he did to the girl.
  2. Her mother was furious about the way she spoke to her brother.
    angry的加強版–氣瘋了
    他媽媽很氣她跟她弟弟說話的方式
  3. happy about對一件事或一個消息感到高興
  4. sad about跟happy 用法一樣,只是意思是難過
  5. The girl is upset about her dress. 覺得衣服不好看或有問題而心煩
  6.  He is anxious about his health condition.他對自己的健康感到憂心忡忡(有一些警訊出現)
  7. I am worried about you.我很擔心你
  8. I am nervous about driving on the highway. 我很怕在高速高路上開車
  9. excited about
  10. They are enthusiastic about the plan.他們對那計畫十分熱心(盡心盡力)
  11. Don’t be pessimistic about the future. 對什麼感到悲觀
  12. I am serious about it. 對這件事我是認真的

接at的情緒形容詞

at的意思是在哪裡,指出座標:所以當主詞的情緒是對著某個人或事件發作,就用at

  1. angry at
  2. furious at現在和furious about通用
  3. The teacher is amazed at the progress her students have made. 出乎意料之外的好的驚訝
  4. She was annoyed at not being invited to the party.
    對於沒收到邀請這件事感到不高興
  5. They are delighted at the prospect. 對於前景很看好(主詞很高興)
  6. disappointed at
  7. excited at
  8. I am hopeless at sports. 運動很菜(完全沒有希望做好)
  9. I am surprised at the result. 出乎意料之外的那種驚訝,可能是超乎預期的好,也可能是低於預期的糟

接with的情緒形容詞

with 是伴隨條件:當主和…人貨物在一起時,就產生一種情緒,就用with。或是一件事發生後,主詞產生了一種情緒,也可以用with

  1. angry with
  2. She is furious with her brother for making a mess in her room.
    她弟弟把她的房間弄的一團糟,她氣瘋了
  3. She was annoyed with her friend for not inviting her to the party.
    她氣她的朋友沒邀請她參加派對
  4. I am happy with my life.對…感到滿意
  5. He is pleased with his promotion.他為升遷感到高興
  6. She was bored with the song. 她覺得那首歌很無聊,聽膩了
  7. I am fed up with my job.對工作感到厭倦,受夠了
  8. He is content with his life.對生活感到滿足
  9. They are delighted with their new house.很滿意新房子
  10. disappointed with
  11. His mother is satisfied with his progress.滿意於他的進步

接for的情緒形容詞

for的意思是為了:當主詞是為了別人或因為某個原因或目的,而產生一種情緒,就用for

  1. Many people are eager for quick success.
    很多人渴求快速成功(急功近利)- success是目的
  2. I am grateful for your support. 感謝別人給予自己的幫助
    我非常感謝你的支持 – your support是原因
  3. I am thankful for her.鬆了一口氣,還好沒事的(謝天謝地的味道)
    還好有她在
  4. I am sorry for you.
    為你感到難過 – 為別人的遭遇
  5. I am happy for you.為你感到高興
  6. sad for – 跟happy 用法一樣,只是意思是難過

接of的情緒形容詞

of的意思是所有格:當主詞對於某個人、事、物有著固定的情緒,這個情緒好像已經成為主詞,對這個特定的人、事、物的認知的一部份,就用of

  1. She is afraid of snakes.
  2. I am scared of the dark.
  3. I’ve got nothing to be ashamed of.  我行事磊落,沒做過什麼會讓我覺得內疚的事(沒對不起別人過)
  4. I am proud of you.  我以你為榮
  5. She is jealous of her friend’s wealth.對於別人擁有自己想要的東西的負面情緒 – 嫉妒
  6. I am envious of your house.想要擁有別人擁有的東西(非負面情緒)- 羨慕

接by的情緒形容詞

by後面接著被動態的動詞的動作者:如果句子是被動態,真正引起主詞的情緒的動作者,要接在by後面。但是,因為英文不愛用被動態,除非不說出做動作者或不知道做動作者。如果要說出做動作者,他們大多會使用主動態。例如:The first time I saw Mary, she was talking as if she were a professor, which deeply impressed me.

所以我們很少看到被動態的情緒動詞後面接by。

  1. amazed by
  2. delighted by
  3. disturbed by
  4. excited by
  5. impressed by
  6. fascinated by
  7. inspired by
  8. astonished by
  9. I was shocked by his words. 對於你覺得錯誤的行為,產生不舒服的那種驚訝
  10. surprised by

接介系詞to的情緒形容詞

to的意思是到達一個地方:當主詞接觸到某個人、物、知識、想法事件或領域,就會產生一種特定的情緒,就用to

  1. He is addicted to chocolate.上癮
  2. She is indifferent to the noise outside.不在乎,漠視

介系詞是語言習慣,有些字可能本來使用不同的介系詞,會有一些不同的意思,但隨著英文為母語者的不在意,到最後變成可通用。建議大家將以上所舉的片語,用在日常生活中,可以自言自語,或寫隨筆,記下每天因什麼人事物,產生什麼情緒。一段時間下來,這些片語用法,就會是你的語言習慣了。如果有其他文法上的疑惑,可以到我們『英文文法』專頁,看看有沒有相關文章。

Barshai Huang
Barshai Huang
從事英語教學二十多年,一路伴隨著學生從幼稚園成長到大學畢業,非常熟悉不同年齡的孩子,在英文學習上會遭遇到的問題與解決方法。擅長自然發音、文法、句子結構、英文閱讀理解策略與寫作的教學。我的教學理念是設計出帶給孩子樂趣與成功經驗的教學方案,孩子就會產生自信,並熱愛英文學習。
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